Dr. Count Cesare Mattei referred these remedies as a new remedies, these remedies occupies a position between the Angiotico and the Scrofoloso and chiefly used in lotions, ointments, in baths , in compresses and of course internally as well . It was designed by Mattei to have actions on blood as well as on lymph, glands and digestive systems also comes under its influence broadly because the medicinal plants chosen by Mattei was so perfect, and the lymph and blood is also related to this system, that’s why tongue becomes the mirror of this system and the pulse of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, how they are interconnected with each other systematically so are also Electro-Homeopathic medicines interconnected with each other if you chose one according to patho-physiology another more or less organ specific also becomes need so that a perfect homeostasis is to be brought back, it resembles with another lymphatic remedy that is Scrofoloso which has action on digestive organs especially and the organs causative for lymph fluid and lymph forming organs also typically and that’s why we cannot drop its relation with Scrofoloso medicines and its extensive actions on gland also more common like that of Scrofoloso as said above that it is designed to act on both blood and lymph then we must think that the cases where one of the currents of these vital fluids that is either lymph or blood comes in disorder and this remedy is call for the same. Electro-Homeopathic remedies action is logically interrelated to each other, to know more about some of them especially Lymphatico, Scrofoloso, Angiotico, Canceroso and Venerio, we must know the physiological relation of some of the systems then we can get clue for the choice of perfect remedies in therapeutics.
Functions of the Blood, Lymphatic, and Immune Systems
Homeostasis, or a “steady state”, is a continual balancing act of the body systems to provide an internal environment that is comparable with life. The two liquid tissues of the body, the blood and lymph have separate but interrelated functions in maintaining this balance. They combine with a third system, the immune, to protect the body against pathogens that could threaten the organism’s viability.
The blood is responsible for the following:
- Transportation of gases (oxygen O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), chemical substances (hormones, nutrients, salts), and cells that defend the body.
- Regulation of the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance, acid base balance, and body temperature.
- Protection of the body from infection.
- Protection of the body from loss of blood by the action of clotting.
The lymph system is responsible for the following:
- Cleansing the cellular environment.
- Returning proteins and tissue fluids to the blood (drainage).
- Providing a pathway for the absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins into the bloodstream.
- Defending the body against disease.
The immune system is responsible for the following:
- Defending the body against disease via the immune response .
- The hematic and lymphatic systems flow through separate yet interconnected and interdependent channels. Both are systems composed of vessels and the liquids that flow through them. The immune system, a very complex set of levels of protection for the body, includes blood and lymph cells.
- The relationship of the lymphatic vessels to the circulatory system is well known. There is close relationship between the distribution of the lymphatic vessels and the venous blood vessels. Tissue fluid is drained by the lymphatic capillaries and transported by a series of larger lymphatic vessels toward the heart.
The lymphatic system is responsible for the following:
- Cleansing the cellular environment.
- Returning proteins and tissue fluids to the blood.
- Providing a pathway for the absorption of fats into the bloodstream.
- Defending the body against disease.
The lymphatic system is composed of lymph (or interstitial fluid), lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymph organs (e.g. tonsils, adenoids, appendix, spleen, thymus gland, and patches of tissue in the intestines called Peyer patches), and lymphoid tissue. Monocytes and lymphocytes pass from the bloodstream through the blood capillary walls into the spaces between the cells in the body. When they pass into this lymph or interstitial fluid that surrounds cells, they perform their protective functions. Monocytes change into macrophages, destroy pathogens, and collect debris from damaged cells. Lymphocytes are much more complicated and are essential to the immune response, so they are discussed in the next section. Once monocytes and lymphocytes pass into the lymphatic capillaries, the fluid is termed lymph or lymphatic fluid. Lymph moves in one direct to prevent pathogens from flowing through the entire body. The system filters out the microorganisms as the lymph passes through its various capillaries, vessels, and nodes.
Lymph travels in the following sequence:
- From the interstitial spaces between the cells.
- Toward the heart through lymphatic capillaries.
- To lymphatic vessels that carry lymph using a valvular system.
- To the lymphatic nodes, which are also called lymph glands that filter the debris that has been collected through the use of macrophages. These nodes can become enlarged when pathogens are present. Note the major lymph nodes in the figure, including the cervical, axillary, inguinal , and mediastinal nodes.
- Then to either the right lymphatic duct or the thoracic duct, both of which empty into the large subclavian veins in the neck.
- Once in the venous blood, the lymph is then recycled through the body through the circulatory system.
The organs in the lymphatic system are the spleen, the thymus gland, the tonsils, the appendix, and Peyer’s patches. The spleen is located in the upper left quadrant and serves to filter, store, and produce blood cells; remove RBCs; and activate B lymphocytes. The thymus gland is located is located in the mediastinum and is instrumental in the development of T lymphocytes (T cells). The tonsils are lymphatic tissue (lingual, pharyngeal, and palatine) that helps protect the entrance to the respiratory and digestive systems. The vermiform appendix and Peyer patches are lymphoid tissue in the intestines.
The immune system is composed of organs, tissues, cells, and chemical messengers that interact to protect the body from external invaders and its own internally altered cells. The chemical messengers are cytokines which are secreted by cells of the immune system that direct immune cellular interactions. Lymphocytes (leukocytes that are categorized as either B cells or T cells) secrete lymphokines, Monocytes and macrophages secrete monokines. Interleukins are a type of cytokine that send messages among leukocytes to direct protective action. The best way to understand this system is through the body’s various levels of defense. The goal of pathogens is to breach these levels to enter the body, reproduce, and subsequently exploit healthy tissue, causing harm. The immune system’s task is to stop them. The above graphic illustrates the levels of defense. There is nonspecific immunity and specific immunity, which can be natural (genetic) or acquired in four different ways. Most pathogens can be contained by the first two lines of nonspecific defense. However, some pathogens deserve a “special” means of protection, which is discussed under “Specific Immunity”.
This term refers to the various ways that the body protects itself from many types of pathogens, without having to “recognize” them. The first line of defense in nonspecific immunity (the outermost layer) consists of the methods of protection:
- Mechanical – examples include the skin, which acts as a barrier, and the sticky mucus on mucous membranes, which serves to trap pathogens.
- Physical – examples include coughing, sneezing, vomiting, and diarrhea. Although not pleasant, these serve to expel pathogens that have gotten past the initial barriers.
- Chemical – examples include tears, saliva, and perspiration. These have a slightly acidic nature that deters pathogens from entering the body while also washing them away. In addition, stomach acids and enzymes serve to kill germs.
The second line of defense in nonspecific immunity comes into play if the pathogens make it past the first line. Defensive measures include certain processes, proteins, and specialized cells.
Defensive processes include the following:
- Phagocytosis – pathogens that make it past the first line of defense and enter into the bloodstream may be consumed by neutrophils and monocytes.
- Inflammation – acquiring its name from its properties, this is a protective response to irritation or injury. The characteristics (heat, swelling, redness, and pain) arise in response to an immediate vasoconstriction, followed by an increase in vascular permeability. These provide a good environment for health. If caused by a pathogen, the inflammation is called an infection.
- Pyrexia – when infection is present, fever may serve a protective function by increasing the action of phagocytes and decreasing the viability of certain pathogens.
The protective proteins are part of the second line of defense. These include interferons, which get their name from their ability to “interfere” with viral replication and limit a virus’s ability to damage the body. A second protein type, the complement proteins, exist as inactive forms in blood circulation that become activated in the presence of bacteria, enabling them to lyse (destroy) the organisms.
Finally the last of the “team” in the second line of defense are the natural killer (NK) cells. This special kind of lymphocyte acts nonspecifically to kill cells that have been infected by certain viruses and cancer cells.
Specific immunity may be either genetic – an inherited ability to resist certain diseases because of one’s species, race, sex, or individual genetics – or acquired. Specific immunity is dependent on the body’s ability to identify a pathogen and prepare a specific response (antibody) to only that invader (antigen). Antibodies are also referred to as immunoglobulin (lg). The acquired form can be further divided into natural and artificial forms, which in turn can each be either active or passive. After a description of the specific immune process, each of the four types is discussed. Specific immunity is dependent on the granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes) for its function. The monocytes metamorphose into macrophages, which dispose of foreign substances. The lymphocytes differentiate into either T lymphocytes (they mature in the thymus) or B lymphocytes (they mature in the bone marrow or fetal liver). Although both types of lympocytes take part in specific immunity, they do it in different ways.
The T cells neutralize their enemies through a process of cell-mediated immunity. This means that they attack antigens directly. They are effective against fungi, cancer cells, protozoa, and unfortunately, organ transplants. B cells use a process of humoral immunity (also called antibody-mediated immunity). This means that they secrete antibodies to “poison” their enemies.
Types of Acquired Immunity
Acquired immunity is categorized as active or passive and then is further subcategorized as natural or artificial. All describe ways that the body has acquired antibodies to specific diseases.
Active acquired immunity can take either of the following two forms:
- Natural: Development of memory cells to protect the individual from a second exposure.
- Artificial: Vaccination (immunization) that uses a greatly weakened form of the antigen, thus enabling the body to develop antibodies in response to this intentional exposure. Examples are the DTP and MMR vaccines.
Passive acquired immunity can take either of the following two forms:
- Natural: Passage of antibodies through the placenta or breast milk.
- Artificial: Use of immunoglobulins harvested from a donor who developed resistance against specific antigens.