DOCTRINE OF CONSTITUTIONS OR TEMPERAMENTS
What we see mostly the people having different nature from each other with even tendency of developing typical or a very peculiar signs and symptoms of diseases among them and if not treated in time then it leads to chronic phase, this peculiarity or tendency to give chances to develop the diseases has to do everything with constitution or temperament. Nature has even not given the same finger prints of two different persons and how can one disease be expressed with same signs and symptoms in two different persons? That has brought different inbuilt characteristics by birth with deep roots in genetics. But since from ancient times this subject has taken attentions of many learned scholars of medical science from Vedic Physicians and Philosophers to Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Paracelsus, Hahnemann, Eduard Von Grauvogle and to the modern thinkers and physicians like Count Cesare Mattei, the founder of Electro-Homeopathy. The very fundamental characteristics that are inherited differently from one person to another, with expression of a peculiar symptoms and signs with disturbances of body, mind and soul that impressed the minds of the great thinkers of medical science and gave birth to the doctrine of constitutions that gives a TYPICAL TENDENCY for DISEASES under the influence of some adverse effects of misuse of own NATURE and NURTURE for a long time. Among them Ayurveda, the science of life stands the most oldest and first school of medicine, later the different schools of medicines of western continents also adopted the same principle but slightly in different manner. That’s why we can say that many people amongst them even old adherents are the representative of the Peculiar constitution. The constitution is not the morbid conditions itself. The constitution in our sense of the word is simple the soil in which diseases of a certain kind develop most easily so is the tendency to give more places for the disease to develop. The meaning should not be misunderstood as immunity. Immunity is the quite different phenomenon.
The most important function in the life of the organism is metabolism as a matter of a fact which constructs, preserves, nourishes and continually rejuvenates the body through the mediation and activity of two great group and functions i.e. Blood and Lymph. Since the most ancient times constitution has been given importance for diagnosing the diseases and for advising the diet and therapeutic treatment whether herbal or metal, long from Vedic times constitution seems to be the most scientific approach to understand the nature of diseased as well as healthy person and accordingly the disorders are treated. As far as Homeopathic concept regarding the constitution is concerned, according to Hahnemann when a problem of relapses of diseases started taking place then he thought of some miasms that is the three forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation Sycosis, Syphilis and Psora. That’s why some diseases become more chronic and passes generation by generation even with some typical characteristics for which he later prescribed some anti miasmatic remedies. And early homeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic, phlegmatic, choleric, sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined by many during this period, including Eduard von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid, carbo-nitrogenoid, and oxygenoid. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic, phosphoric, tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic, sulphuric, phosphoric, and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination, in common with the later well known stratification of mesomorphs, endomorphs and ectomorphs. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’, citing the various classifications of Czerny, Kretschmer, Pende, Romero and Maranon. And Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non homeopathic sources also discuss the different ideas about ‘Constitution’. Whitmont himself offers the following definition:
“…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual, characteristic patterns. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. Constitutions can be characterized by characterizing these fixed response patterns’. Sheldon was said successful in isolating and measuring dimensions for describing physique and temperament, he cautioned that the dimensions should not be examined in isolation one by one, but, rather, the pattern of relations between the variables should be studied. Sheldon maintained that the person’s somatotype is genetically determined and causes people to develop and express personality traits consistent with their body builds. For example, he hypothesized that endomorphs (high in fatty tissue) would be sociable, complacent, and capable of easy communication of feelings. He thought mesomorphs (high in muscle tissue) would be adventurous, bold, competitive, aggressive, and energetic, whereas ectomorphs (low in fatty and muscle tissue) would be inhibited, introverted, hypersensitive to pain, and secretive. He tested these hypotheses by having observers’ rate individuals on these trait dimensions and found empirical support for his ideas (Sheldon, Hartl, & McDermott, 1949, pp. 26-27). And these different traits must give a chance for developing some typical diseases within themselves that’s why a temperament can be seen as a type of soil where some typical crops grows well, that means typical diseases easily develops and attacks frequently; not to be considered as it happens in the absence of immunity but should be granted as in the presence of typical temperament a genetically inherited inbuilt NATURE. That’s how the masters in medical therapeutics always said in one or another way that “It is nonsense to consider curing the disease is possible according to one and the same prescription, with same remedies and doses without regard to sex, age and constitution. For example bronchial asthma, chronic rheumatoid arthritis or hemorrhoids will require different remedies according to constitution of individual, and one cannot cure them with same prescriptions. When we take deep case history we find that Individual lifestyle and their own typical trait causes the disease to develop within them in different way and so requires different treatment”.
Well, now let us have a short look on Ayurevedic concept of constitution for comparison, the Tridosha with Mattei’s design of constitution. The concept of constitution (Prakriti) is central to Ayurveda. Individuals are comprised of the 3 forces (Vata i.e. Wind, Pitta i.e.Fire, Kapha i.e Water) in unique combinations so that no two persons are alike. The constitutional determination provides insight into the deeper workings of an individual. With this, it is possible to become aware of the foods, spices, herbal medicines, emotions, thoughts, climates, colors, activities and so on, that tend to either balance or unbalance a particular individual and to either improve or aggravate various types of illness. Furthermore, it is possible to outline the disease tendencies of the different constitutions so that a preventive lifestyle may be observed; also, health promotion for individuals of different constitutions can follow a rational, time tested approach utilizing all that nature provides.
Accordingly, a person can plan a diet and other routine activities supporting his / her constitution. This can help a lot in the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. Vata Prakruti presents quickness in all activities that represents to the Nervous constitution and the patients of this temperament prone to nervous disorders and Pitta Prakruti presents tenderness in its nature and the patients of this prakruti tend to have gastro intestinal disorders with the involvement of liver and spleen, that can be said a bilious temperament and while Kapha prakruti presents serene nature like moon, the patients are said to get repeated diseases of respiratory organs. If we compare the concept of constitution of Mattei with Ayurveda, it seems that Vat and Pitta resembles with Sanguine temperament and Pitta and Kapha to Lymphatic and combination one prakruti from of both i.e. Vata and Kapha can be said Mixed or Nervous. But Mattei has his own idea of considering the disease progressing in a morbid conditions either because of the malfunction of the two major fluids of body i.e. lymph or blood. He thought of metabolism of human body and on that very basis he guessed the most important function in the life of the organism is anabolism and catabolism as a matter of a fact which constructs, preserves, nourishes and continually rejuvenates the body through the mediation and activity of two great group and functions.
The organs of the circulation of the lymph.
The organs of the circulation of the blood.
We must also distinguish comparing the matter of two chief causes in disorders of metabolism, those of the lymph and those of the blood. That’s how the Mattei’s classifications of constitution is based on the physiological perception and accordingly classified into three major groups of condition.
The Lymphatic constitution.
The Sanguine constitution.
The Mixed constitution.
The Lymphatic Constitution
Includes the special tendency to disease of the lymph organs and the organs of the circulation of the lymph in the widest sense of the word, Therefore the tendency to have the disease of mucus membrane, the glands, the lymphatic absorbent vessels, the digestive as well as the secretive glands in general and then to the disease of stomach small intestines and great guts the cutaneous glands. Mattie’s lymphatic constitution correspondence to the Sycotic constitution of Hahnemann And Hydrogenoid according to Eduard Von Grauvogle. It is manifested by the tendency to catarrh of all kinds such as catarrh of the nose, eyes, ears, throat, stomach and intestines, soft, not too abundant. Tendency to eruptions of the skin especially chronic ones dyspepsia, swellings and suppurations of the glands; particularly of the chronic sort: the so called scrofulous diseases, Persons of the lymphatic constitution have as a rule a pallid skin and complexion, and the visible mucous membranes are pale and are inclined to a flabby formation of fat, and muscles. As far as the temperament is concerned, they exhibit a calmness or sluggishness as well, their movements are to suit, and a special peculiarity of this constitution is the want of solid ingredients in the blood in general, and of the red blood corpuscles in particular. It thus exhibits the tendency to a preponderance of also the cause of the want of natural warmth, such persons are liable to shiver and feel the cold at extremities. The course of any illness may occur stormy and violently but the nature of disease Tends to sluggishness. Arising acutely and becoming chronic is a very typical tendency to turn into mixed constitution. Mattie’s i.e. Electro-Homeopathy medicines suited particular for this constitution are Scrofoloso and Lymphatico and WE, YE and other electricities can be used for beneficial results as early as possible. Scrofoloso and Lymphatico are the chief remedies for this constitution it doesn’t mean that they singly cure all diseases, when disease takes severe turn from nature of mildness to cytological dyscrasia then a call for Canceroso must be remembered. For instance in cases of a glandular swelling when it is in a mild state Scrofoloso and Lymphatico works wonderfully as a constitutional remedy but as and when it starts suppurating then without Canceroso group of medicines the disease cannot be overcome. As a rule a single constitutional remedy must be given for a longer time even after the curing of disease to restore total health. Among Scrofoloso group of medicines S1 is a chief constitutional remedy, if not suited otherwise when we think a need of more one more remedy then L1 is another choice.
The Sanguine Constitution
This constitution has as the tendency to develop the diseases of the blood and the organs of the circulation of the blood in general. Consequently the diseases of the heart of the arteries, veins as well as the capillaries of the same .We must therefore include under this heading the acute catarrh as well as the congestion of the blood vessels and superabundance of the said organs which may cause inflammation and tendency to hemorrhage. The sanguine constitution corresponds to Syphilitic according to Hahnemann and the Oxygenoid constitution according to Eduard Von Grauvogle. Persons of this temperament a fresh complexion the visible mucus membranes of the lips throat and conjunctiva of the eyes. Speech and character gesticulations are animated fiery they are either are inclined to vehemence or cheerfulness. The muscles are firm, the pulse full not sluggish like, in Lymphatic constitution. Any sickness that may occur on this foundation takes a more stormy and violent course inclining to acute crisis and less tendency to become chronic. Angiotico are the drug of choice in this temperament, A3 is more specific in this constitution or A1 can be another option. A2 is mostly used externally. RE and BE are the electricity that gives the most excellent results for persons that belong to this constitution.
The Mixed Constitution
Unites the peculiarities of the both former ones but to an intensified and heightened degree. This leads to the local degeneration of the tissues, whether through the suppuration, indurations, ulceration and all other chronic so called incurables. So here we see the development of the dyscrasia and exuberance of the tissues. The nervous and bilious (i.e. related to bile) even sometimes falls under the mixed constitution. This mixed temperament correspondence to Psoric constitution of Hahnemann and Carbo nitrogenoid according to Eduard Von Grauvogle. Canseroso, Venereo are the medicines preferred for this constitution And GE, WE are the Electricities used for better results. Dr.N.L.Sinha tried to distinguish NERVOUS CONSTITUTION corresponding to the circulation of force or organs appertaining to the same nerves and as was considered as a result of NEURASTHENIA and placed as a MIXED one as nerves also do not get proper nourishment by LYMPH and BLOOD that leads to either exaltation or depression, the so called increased or decreased irritability that mostly affects the functions of different organs and we can find nervous illness of those organs especially in LIVER, STOMACH, INTESTINES, HEART etc. and the constitutional remedies for them surely are F1 or F2, S10 etc. and even Electricities also work miraculously for such patients. If bilious then S5 becomes drug of choice. Canceroso series of medicines are proved more helpful as a constitutional remedy for more advanced stages of the disease as far as mixed constitution is concerned.
Selection of the remedies
Though this subject can take different title and do not fall under subtitle of constitution but what I thought is this that when we come to know that the concepts of constitutions clearly according to Electro-Homeopathy then selection of remedies to cure the disease will become not troublesome. And we have already taken some part of it as introduction in the title of Electro-Homeopathy. As far as the therapeutic values of Electro-Homeopathy is concerned in context to its principle I consider the work of Dr.N.L.Sinha is more appreciable, he agrees that the constitution is in fact decisive in the cases of chronic diseases for the right selection of the chief and fundamental remedies for cure in the first place of the series of remedies in question. Major remedies for constitution are S1 or L1 for lymphatic temperament, A1 for sanguine and C1 or V1 for Mixed in more tissue dyscrasia, if from nervous origin the F1 will be the choice of constitutional remedy. The principle remedies are constitutional (Temperament) and secondary remedies are that those correspond to the diseased organ or affected tissue which must have the most approximate affinity (Organopathy) and finally objective and subjective symptoms must be collected to chose the perfect remedy to have desired actions. One of the examples presented by Dr.N.L.Sinha can clear it to us. A case of Ordinary chronic rheumatic gout arising from a chronic dyscrasia of the humours, here of course it will call a chief remedy for Canceroso series being as in chronic dyscrasia. In the beginning Angiotico and Scrofoloso remedies might be sufficient to have their sphere of actions strictly before the disease not turned into chronic phase rather with just early symptoms of swelling and pains. Now in this chronic case the seat of disease is found in joints and partly in muscles so the choice of remedy will be C5 as a principle remedy. However the course of this disease is not just combined with uric diathesis, but with tendency of inflammation usually of a passive kind as well, which may be called as stagnation, here a venous remedy that reduces the congestion may be more helpful, so again an organ or tissue specific of Angiotico group calls for and A2 will be drug of choice. And finally to promote the excretion of uric acid by means of metabolism and to replace the secreted substance with healthy tissue, the remedy for glands, muscles and joints that is S5, internally as well as externally. Each case may demand the variations, if secretions of kidneys needed then C6 and S6 works and if to promote and execute perspiration then F1 will be choice.
Thus three important points must be taken into consideration for total cure.
Temperament: A perfect constitutional remedy for its disposition.
Organopathy: The understanding of organic or local seat of disease with patho physiology, and the selection of same organ specific remedy or remedies.
Dose and Law of Polarity: The kind of more local illness, by means of a very careful investigation of the symptoms which will become easier to select again the right remedy. And when the remedies are selected perfectly then a DOSE or DILUTION of drug must be suitable according the law of polarity and desired effects in the form of positive or negative dose.
And treatment must be terminated with constitutional or temperamental remedy for a longer time even when all symptoms subsides as a rule.